What is meant by Mutual Funds?

What Is Mutual Fund’s meaning?

A type of financial vehicle whose goal is to pool money collected from numerous investors so one can invest in securities like bonds, stocks, money markets, and other assets, is known as a mutual fund. Professional money managers operate mutual funds and they allocate the fund’s assets while attempting to produce capital gains as well as income for the fund’s investors. A mutual fund’s portfolio is structured and maintained so that one can match the investment objected as stated in its prospectus.

A mutual fund enables a small or individual investor to access portfolios in bonds, equities, or other securities that are professionally managed. Every shareholder, hence, participates proportionally in the losses or the gains of a mutual fund. Mutual funds also invest in a vast number of securities with their performance usually being tracked as the change in the total market capitalization of the fund. It is derived by putting together an aggregate of the performance of any underlying investments.

Mutual funds explained

Now that we have the answer to the question of what are mutual funds, to start off with, here is a breakdown of how they operate. In a mutual fund, money is pooled from the investing public which is then used to purchase other securities, typically stocks or bonds. The value of the mutual fund’s company will depend on the performance of the securities one decides to buy through them. Therefore, when you choose to buy a unit or a share in a mutual fund, you are buying the performance of its portfolio.

To put it precisely, you are a part of the portfolio’s value. Hence, investing in a share of a mutual fund differs from investing in the shares of stock. Unlike the stock market, mutual funds shares do not afford their holders any additional voting rights. A share in a mutual fund represents investments in a basket of other stocks, or other securities, instead of offering just one holding. For this reason, the price of a mutual fund’s share is referred to as its net asset value or NAV per share, sometimes expressed as NAVPS.

To derive a fund’s NAV, the total value of the securities in the portfolio is divided by the total amount of outstanding shares. Outstanding shares are those that are held by institutional investors, company officers, or insiders. One can typically purchase and redeem mutual u=fund shares as needed at the fund’s current net asset value. Unlike a stock price, the mutual fund’s net asset value will not fluctuate during its market hours. Instead, it can be settled at the end of each trading day. Accordingly, the price of a mutual fund updates as its NAVPS settles.

It is typical for a mutual fund to hold over a hundred different securities. This implies that mutual fund shareholders can gain important diversification in their portfolios at a relatively low price. Take, for instance, an investor who purchased only Google stock prior to the company having a bad quarter. The investor now stands to lose a great deal of value since all of his dollars are tied to a single company. Alternatively, a different investor could buy the shares of a mutual fund that happens to own some of Google’s stock. If Google has a bad quarter, the investor will lose a significantly less amount since Google remains to be just a minor part of the fund’s overall portfolio.

Breaking down how mutual funds work

A mutual fund not only works as an investment but also as an actual company. When one chooses to invest in a mutual fund, they buy into partial ownership of the mutual fund company and its assets. Returns that are earned from a mutual fund operate in three ways:

  1. Income can primarily be earned from the dividends on stocks as well as the interest on the bonds that are held in a mutual fund’s portfolio. A fund can pay out nearly all of the income it receives throughout the year to its fund owners in the form of a distribution. A mutual fund will often give investors the choice to either receive a check for its distributions or reinvest its earnings so they can receive more shares.
  2. In case the fund sells its securities and they increase in price, the fund experiences a capital gain. Most mutual funds also pass on these gains to their investors in the form of a distribution.
  3. In case the fund’s holdings increase in price but the fund manager chooses not to sell them, the shares of the fund will increase in price. After this, you have the option to sell your mutual fund shares for a profit in the market.

Mutual fund Advantages

Here are a few reasons mutual funds have been the vehicle for retail investors for decades.


One of the main advantages of investing in mutual funds is diversification which reduces risk while enhancing a portfolio’s returns. A truly diversified portfolio has securities with different capitalizations and industries and bonds with varying issuers and maturities.

Easy Access:

Since they trade on major stock exchanges, mutual funds can be purchased and sold relatively easily, which makes them highly liquid investments.

Professional Management:

Another core advantage of mutual funds is to not have to manage investments and pick stocks. Instead, all of the careful research and skillful trading will be carried out by a professional investment manager.

The Takeaway

A mutual fund acts like a trust that collects money from a group of investors who share a common investment objective. As they are easily accessible, professionally managed, and improve portfolio diversity, mutual funds make for a great beginner friendly investment tool. Keep in mind that mutual funds charge an annual fee and therefore can impact one’s returns but these fees tend to be minimal and non-significant. It is important to research carefully into the different types of mutual funds prior to investing.