नमस्कार मित्रो। एंजेल वन के इस podcast में आपका स्वागत है ।
Stock market is the most popular financial market in the world. Stock market mein jo stocks trade hote hain vo do purpose fulfill karte Hain. First purpose: they help corporations raise capital for business expansion. Second purpose: they help traders to earn profits from their investments.
School mein, basic biology mein sab ne pada hai ki nature mein mein do organisms ke beech ideal relationship symbiotic hota hai. In a symbiotic relationship, both the organisms benefit from dealing with each other. At its best, this is how the stock market works as well. Through the stock market, corporations essentially crowdfund their future growth and expansion. Investors, both of the retail and institutional type, get to benefit from their insights into market forces.
As an investor you must find out which stock is right for you. Stock market mein do tarike ke stocks available hote Hain. These two types of stocks are preferred stocks and common stocks. Let's understand them individually first and then we will compare and contrast their differences.
Agar aap common stocks kharidte hain to aapko company mein voting rights milte Hain. You can use your voting rights to determine what direction the company takes in the future. You can also participate in the process for electing the board members of the company. By buying a stock of the company you become a stakeholder who owns a part of the company. Because of this the board members will payout dividends to you from the company's profits. These dividends will vary and you are not guaranteed to receive them every year.
If you buy a preferred stock, then you do not get voting rights in the company. Company Ko ek nai sector mein diversification karna chahiye ya nahin, company ko ek naya market enter karna chahiye ya nahin, company ko apne hiring practices badalne chahie ki nahin - voting on all such issues and more is denied to preferred stockholders. Ab aap soch rahe honge ki agar company ke stock khareedne ke bad bhi preferred stockholders ko voting rights nahin milte to aise stocks lene ka kya fayda?
The answer to that is that there are definite benefits to being a preferred stockholder. Number 1, preferred stockholders are guaranteed a fixed dividend every year. Contrast this with common stockholders who are not guaranteed a fixed dividend. There is no guarantee, even, that they will receive a dividend every year. But a preferred stockholder has that reassurance.
Number 2, peferred stockholders also get the better end of the deal if the company goes bankrupt and liquidates its assets. A company's creditors, bondholders and preferred stockholders are given preference if the company goes out of business. Their entitlements are settled first before that of common stockholders.
Preferred stocks often have a unique feature: they may be callable. Callable stocks are bought back by a company from the stock holder at a premium. Effectively, iska yeh matlab hua ki preferred stockholders market price se higher price mein apne stocks company ko wapas bech sakte hain.
There are some other factors on the basis of which stocks are differentiated from each other. Ek aisa factor hai market capitalisation. Market capitalisation of a company is obtained by multiplying the market price of its stock by the total number of issued stocks. Jinn companies ka market capitalisation 20000 crore se jyada hota hai unn companies ke stock ko large cap stocks kehte Hain. Large cap stocks ka growth stable hota hai. Therefore large cap stocks can be trusted to give moderate returns over time. Companies with market capitalisation between 5,000 to 20,000 crores issue midcap stocks. Jim companies ka market capitalisation 5,000 crore se kam hai ve companies small cap stocks issue karte hain. Small cap stocks provide the possibility of high returns. But small cap stocks volatile bhi hote Hain. Isliye small cap stocks kharidne ke waqt aap "high risk, high reward" game khelte hain.
Stocks can also be differentiated from each other on the basis of the location in which the company operates. For example if a company operates out of a foreign location, then its stocks can be considered foreign stocks. Aap apne portfolio mein kuchh foreign stocks rakh kar apne holdings diversify kar sakte hain. Diversified portfolios are less at risk from market swings.
Stocks can also be classified on the basis of the sector in which the company operates. Jo companies agricultural products - jaise ki fertilizers, pesticides, proprietary seeds etc - manufacture kar rahi hai, uss company ke stocks ko agro stocks kaha jayega. Maan lijiye ki aapke portfolio mein agro stocks ka percentage high hai. Kal Ko agar Desh mein agricultural distress hota hai to aapke holdings jyada vulnerable honge. Now by buying stocks of companies operating in the service sector you can improve the risk profile of your portfolio.
Ultimately there are as many types of stocks in the market as there are companies. While companies can be grouped in terms of sector, location and market capitalisation, they are unique at the end of the day. They will all provide different returns. Therefore an investor must also be an investigator. Aapko koi bhi stock lene se pehle uski nitty-gritties ko theek se investigate karna hai. Koi bhi stock ko kharidne se pehle uske general aur specific features Ko samajhna hai. Only after that must you put down your money for the stock.
चलिए, एंजेल वन की तरफ से आपको आज के अलविदा. ये podcast शेयर करना ना भूलियेगा - याद रखियेगा की ज्ञान बाटने से बढ़ता है । और फिर अंत में तोह financial markets एक ऐसी university है जिसमे कोई professor नहीं, सब students ही है ।