What Is a Solvency Ratio, and How Is It Calculated?

One of the most important measures for evaluating a company's financial health is solvency ratio. Let’s learn more about it in this article.

The solvency ratio is a financial metric that assesses a company’s ability to repay long-term debt. It compares a company’s total assets to total liabilities, which include both short- and long-term debt. In other words, it assesses the firm’s ability to meet long-term financial obligations if all of its assets were sold.

Solvency ratios are useful to investors and creditors because they indicate a company’s financial health and ability to meet long-term obligations. However, it should be noted that the solvency ratio is only one of many financial metrics to consider when assessing a company’s financial health.

How is the Solvency ratio calculated?

The solvency ratio is calculated by dividing a company’s total assets by its total liabilities. The formula for calculating the solvency ratio is:

Solvency Ratio = Total Assets / Total Liabilities

Total assets include all of the company’s assets, both tangible and intangible, whereas total liabilities include all of the company’s debts and obligations, both short-term and long-term.

For example, if a company has total assets of 1,000,000 and total liabilities of 500,000, the solvency ratio would be:

Solvency Ratio = 10,00,000 / 5,00,000

Solvency Ratio = 2:1

This means the company has twice as many assets as liabilities, indicating that it will be able to pay it’s long term liabilities easily.

Note: There are more than one type of solvency ratios, depending on the types of assets and liabilities measured

Why is Solvency ratio important?

The solvency ratio is an important indicator of a company’s financial health because it indicates its ability to pay off long-term debt obligations. A higher solvency ratio indicates that a company has more assets available to cover its liabilities, implying that it is better positioned to repay its debts over time. A lower solvency ratio, on the other hand, indicates that the company is more likely to default on its obligations.

The solvency ratio is used by investors and creditors to assess a company’s financial health and creditworthiness. If a company has a low solvency ratio, creditors may be less willing to lend it money or charge higher interest rates to compensate for the increased risk of default. Similarly, investors may be less inclined to invest in a company with a low solvency ratio because it indicates a higher risk of bankruptcy or other financial difficulties.

Limitations of the Solvency ratio

While the solvency ratio is a useful metric for evaluating a company’s financial health, there are some limitations to its use. Here are a few key limitations to keep in mind:

  1. It doesn’t account for the timing of assets and liabilities:

    The solvency ratio is calculated using the company’s total assets and total liabilities, but it does not take into account when those assets and liabilities are due. For example, a company may have significant long-term debt that will not be paid off for several years. In that case, the solvency ratio may provide an inaccurate picture of the company’s ability to meet its debt obligations in the short term.

  2. It doesn’t consider the quality of assets:

    The solvency ratio treats all assets in a company as equal, regardless of their quality or liquidity. A company, for example, may have a large amount of assets in the form of inventory or accounts receivable, but those assets may be difficult to convert to cash. If the company is unable to convert those assets to cash when needed, the solvency ratio may overstate the company’s ability to meet its debt obligations.

  3. It doesn’t consider off-balance sheet items:

    The solvency ratio only considers balance-sheet items such as assets and liabilities. It does not take into account off-balance-sheet items such as lease obligations or contingent liabilities. These items can have a significant impact on a company’s ability to meet its debt obligations, so they must be considered when evaluating a company’s financial health.

  4. It doesn’t provide information on cash flow:

    While the solvency ratio indicates a company’s ability to meet its long-term debt obligations, it does not indicate its cash flow. Even if a company has a high solvency ratio, if it is unable to generate enough cash flow to cover its operating expenses, it may be at risk of defaulting on its debt obligations.

Learning about other solvency ratios will help to give a better picture of a company’s financial health, such as –

  1. Debt to equity ratio
  2. Debt to assets ratio
  3. Debt to capital ratio
  4. Interest coverage ratio


It’s important to note that the solvency ratio is just one of many financial metrics that should be considered when evaluating a company’s financial health. Other important metrics include liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, and efficiency ratios. By looking at a range of different metrics, investors and creditors can get a more complete picture of a company’s financial health and make more informed decisions about lending or investing. 

Now that you know about the Solvency ratio, you are one step closer to being ready to invest in stocks. Open Demat account with Angel One, India’s trusted stockbroker and start building your wealth.