Difference Between F&O vs. Equity

5 mins read
by Angel One

What is a Stock?

Stocks (also known as equity) are financial instruments that reflect part ownership in a firm. This entitles the stockholder to a proportionate share of the corporation’s assets and profits proportional to their ownership percentage. Stocks are denoted by the term “shares.” Stocks are primarily traded on stock exchanges, though private sales do occur and form the backbone of many individual investors’ portfolios. These transactions must adhere to government rules designed to safeguard investors against unscrupulous acts. Equity has historically outperformed the majority of other asset classes over the long haul.

What are futures?

A future contract is a legal agreement to sell or buy a particular commodity, asset, or security at a defined price at a future date. To simplify trading, futures contracts are standardised in terms of quality and quantity. When a futures contract is purchased, the buyer assumes the responsibility to purchase and receive the underlying asset when the contract expires. The seller of the futures contract assumes responsibility for providing and delivering the underlying asset on the contract’s expiration date.

What is an Option?

The phrase “option” refers to a financial instrument whose value is determined by the underlying instruments, such as stocks. An option contract gives the buyer a choice to buy or sell the underlying asset, depending on the type of contract. In contrast to futures, the holder is not obligated to acquire or sell the asset if they choose not to. Each contract will have an expiration date by which the holder must exercise their option. The strike price of an option is the stated price.

Options contracts are dangerous due to their complexity, and call and put options both carry an equal level of risk. When investors purchase a stock option, the investor’s sole financial exposure is the premium paid when the contract is purchased.

However, when a seller purchases put options, they assume full responsibility for the stock’s price. If a put option buyer has purchased the right to sell the stock at $40 per share, and the stock falls to $10, the person who began the contract must agree to purchase the stock at the contract’s value, or $50 per share.

A call option buyer’s risk is restricted to the price paid upfront. This premium fluctuates throughout the contract’s duration. It is determined by several criteria, including the distance between the strike price and the current price of the underlying security and the remaining time on the contract. This premium is paid to the investor who purchased the put option, commonly known as the writer of the option.

Futures contracts have high levels of risk for both the buyer and seller. As the underlying stock price fluctuates, any party to the agreement may be required to deposit additional funds into their trading accounts to meet a daily threshold. This is because gains on future contracts are marked to market daily, which means that any change in the position’s value, be it positive or negative, is transferred to the parties’ accounts at the close of each trading day.


A futures contract is a mutual agreement between parties to purchase or sell an item at a specific price at a specified period in the future. The buyer is obligated to purchase the asset at the specified future date in this case. You may learn the fundamentals of futures contracts by clicking here.

An option contract entitles the buyer to purchase an item at a specific price. However, the buyer has no obligation to complete the transaction. However, if the buyer elects to purchase the item, the seller is obligated to sell it.


Assume the asset’s market value falls below the contract price, and the buyer will still be required to purchase it at the agreed-upon price and will incur damages.

In an options contract, the buyer has an advantage in this situation. If the asset’s value falls below the agreed-upon price, the buyer has the option to withdraw from the transaction, and this minimises the buyer’s loss.

In other words, a futures contract has the potential to generate a limitless amount of profit or loss. Meanwhile, an options contract can generate a limitless profit while minimising the risk of loss.

Advance payment:

There is no upfront expense associated with entering into a futures contract. However, the buyer is obligated to pay the agreed-upon price for the asset.

In an options contract, the buyer must pay a premium. By paying this premium, the buyer of the option gains the right to forego purchasing the asset later if it becomes less appealing. If the option holder decides not to purchase the item, the premium paid equals the amount he stands to lose.

In both circumstances, you may be required to pay commissions.

Deal execution:

A futures contract is completed on the specified date, and the buyer acquires the underlying asset on this day.

Meanwhile, an option buyer has the opportunity to exercise the contract at any moment before the expiration date. As a result, you are free to purchase the asset anytime you believe the conditions are favourable.

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