What is Profit After Tax & How to Calculate It?
Profit After Tax, or PAT, refers to the profit amount the company retains after meeting all its operational and non-operational expenses, liabilities, and taxes. It reflects the amount of earnings available to shareholders or for reinvestment in the business. PAT is a crucial financial ratio and is calculated on a per-share basis.
PAT is widely used as a key financial indicator by analysts and investors to evaluate a company’s financial performance and ability to generate sustainable profits. PAT is also known as Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT) or simply Net Profit After Tax (NPAT).
Importance of PAT
- Measure of Financial Performance: PAT is a reliable indicator of a company’s financial performance and profitability. It reflects the ability of a company to generate surpluses after accounting for all expenses and taxes. Stakeholders closely monitor PAT to evaluate the company’s effectiveness in generating sustainable returns.
- Assessing Tax Efficiency: PAT reveals a company’s ability to manage taxes effectively and determines if it meets its tax liabilities within legal frameworks.
- Basis for Dividend Distribution: PAT is an index for the stakeholders to determine how much profit is available for distribution. A higher PAT indicates a healthier financial position. It allows companies to allocate more funds for dividend payments.
- Benchmark for Comparisons: PAT can be used to compare the performance of the company you are considering investing in across periods and competitors. Businesses use PAT measurements to assess a company’s performance over time and set sectoral benchmarks for comparison.
- Influencing Investment Decisions: PAT can significantly influence investment decisions as it reflects a company’s financial health and abilities to deliver a sustainable return. Investors use a growing PAT as an indication of financial stability and an attractive investment opportunity.
How Is the Profit After Tax Calculated?
The formula to calculate profit after tax is as follows:
PAT or NOPAT = Operating Income x (1-tax)
Operating income = gross profit – operating expenses
Another formula to calculate PAT is:
PAT = Net profit before tax – Total tax expense
Net profit before tax refers to the earnings of the company before deducting taxes. The total tax represents the amount of taxes paid or accrued during a specific period, including income tax, corporate tax, and any other applicable taxes.
Using the formula to calculate PAT, companies can determine their final profit available for dividend payment or reinvestment.
Illustration of PAT Calculation
Understanding the PAT formula will become easier with the help of an example. PAT is the resultant value of Profit Before Tax (PBT) minus the tax rate. PBT is calculated by subtracting total expenses from total income. These expenses could be:
- Cost of goods sold
- Any depreciation
- Overhead and general expenses
- Interest paid on loans – short and long term
- Taxes remitted to the government regularly
- Expenses incurred in the company’s product research and development
- Charge-offs or expenses that are written off at one-time or as losses
The tax rate is calculated based on the company’s geographical location. In India, the tax slabs vary across corporations – nature of ownership, size, type of business, etc. However, tax only applies in the case of positive PBT or when total revenue exceeds the total expense. Loss-making companies are not required to pay taxes.
Following is an example of a company’s Profit and Loss statement with total revenue of Rs. 150,000.
|Profit and Loss Statement|
|Less: Direct Costs|
|Cost of goods sold (COGS)||(25,000)|
|Less: Indirect Costs|
|Operating Profit/ EBIT||90,000|
|Earnings before Tax (EBT)||80,000|
|Net Profit/ PAT||70,000|
The data is for illustration purposes only.
Read more about “The Ultimate Guide to Income Tax”
The company’s net income after tax is divided by total sales to calculate the PAT margin. It is a critical financial ratio that tells investors about the profit made by the company for each rupee of revenue and multiplying it by 100. PAT margin provides insights into the efficiency of a company’s management in generating profits after accounting for taxes. A higher PAT margin indicates better profitability and cost management, making it a crucial metric for assessing a company’s financial performance.
Profit After Tax (PAT) is a crucial financial metric that indicates a company’s profitability after deducting all taxes. It plays a vital role in assessing a business’s financial health and sustainability. For publicly traded companies, changes in PAT value can indicate changes in the share price.
However, considering only the PAT or PAT margin when evaluating a company before investing may not give a complete picture. A company’s PAT can be reduced if tax rates are raised or the company earns less revenue, which may not provide the correct insight into business fundamentals and management.
What is Profit After Tax (PAT)?
PAT refers to the net profit of a company after deducting all applicable taxes, such as income tax, corporate tax, and other levies, from its income. PAT provides insights into the company’s ability to generate a sustainable profit over its liabilities. It is used by investors and creditors alike to determine whether a company is profitable or not.
Why is PAT important?
PAT is crucial for determining a company’s actual profitability after considering its tax obligations. It helps stakeholders assess the financial health and performance of the business.
How is PAT calculated?
One can obtain PAT by deducting the total tax expenses from the net profit before tax. The profit after tax formula is PAT = Net Profit Before Tax – Total Tax Expense.
What does a positive PAT indicate?
A positive PAT indicates that the company has generated revenue over and above all its expenses. It reflects the company’s financial stability and the ability to generate returns for shareholders.
Can PAT be negative?
Yes, PAT can be negative if a company incurs losses exceeding its tax benefits. This could be due to various reasons, such as high expenses or declining revenue.
How is PAT used in financial analysis?
PAT is a key metric for financial analysis to evaluate a company’s profitability. It is used to assess tax efficiency and allows stakeholders to compare the performance of the company over time. PAT is also used to compare peers and make informed decisions.